On the sixth day of the history of the world, the first marriage occurred. Adam, the first man, was created on this day of dust from the ground (Genesis 2:7). God then saw that Adam needed a helper (Genesis 2:18). Thus the first recorded surgery in history occurred. God removed one of Adam's ribs (Genesis 2:21). From that rib, God formed Eve, the first woman.
The first marriage in history was an arranged marriage. There was only one man and one woman. Adam did not have multiple options and neither did Eve. Their marriage was the only perfect marriage in all of history— for the world was still without sin. Adam and Eve were perfect.
At the very beginning of history, God established marriage between one man and one woman. For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh (Genesis 2:24). Throughout the Old Testament many powerful men tended to stray into the practice of polygamy (see What Does the Bible Say About Polygamy?). Such sin ravished their families, favoritism was everywhere (take Joseph for instance).
Jesus reaffirmed the validity of the institution of marriage when He confronted the Pharisees regarding the subject of divorce (Matthew 19:4-6). Jesus added concerning marriage, So they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate (Matthew 19:6). In the book of Ephesians, Paul also also quotes from the Genesis 2 account of the establishment of marriage and compares the marriage relationship to Christ and the church (Ephesians 5:22-33).
Lastly, marriage appears to be a temporary establishment. Responding to a question from the Sadducees, concerning who a woman who married seven times would be married to, Jesus stated, For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like the angels in heaven (Matthew 22:30, Mark 12:25, Luke 20:35). However, this does not necessarily mean that believers will forget about the people they knew on earth in heaven. Scripture seems to indicate that believers will recognize people that they knew of when they lived on earth. Jesus, for instance, says, I say to you that many will come from the east and west, and recline at the table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 8:11).
Creation of Man - The Christian Worldview
What Does the Bible Say About Polygamy? - Genesis 4:19
The Fall - The Christian Worldview
Who Was Cain's Wife? - Genesis 4:17
The Birth of Seth - Genesis 4:25